Linking land use with household vehicle emissions in the central puget sound: methodological framework and findings

Lawrence D. FrankCorresponding Author Contact Information, E-mail The Corresponding Author, Brian Stone, Jr. and William Bachman

City & Regional Planning Program, Georgia Institute of Technology, 245 4th St. NW, Atlanta, GA 30332-0155, USA

Available online 21 February 2000.

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Abstract

A leading cause of air pollution in many urban regions is mobile source emissions that are largely attributable to household vehicle travel. While household travel patterns have been previously related with land use in the literature (Crane, R., 1996. Journal of the American Planning Association 62 (1, Winter); Cervero, R. and Kockelman, C., 1997. Transportation Research Part D 2 (3), 199–219), little work has been conducted that effectively extends this relationship to vehicle emissions. This paper describes a methodology for quantifying relationships between land use, travel choices, and vehicle emissions within the Seattle, Washington region. Our analysis incorporates land use measures of density and mix which affect the proximity of trip origins to destinations; a measure of connectivity which impacts the directness and completeness of pedestrian and motorized linkages; vehicle trip generation by operating mode; vehicle miles/h of travel and speed; and estimated household vehicle emissions of nitrogen oxides, volatile organic compounds, and carbon monoxide. The data used for this project consists of the Puget Sound Transportation Panel Travel Survey, the 1990 US Census, employment density data from the Washington State Employment Security Office, and information on Seattle’s vehicle fleet mix and climatological attributes provided by the Washington State Department of Ecology. Analyses are based on a cross-sectional research design in which comparisons are made of variations in household travel demand and emissions across alternative urban form typologies. Base emission rates from MOBILE5a and separate engine start rates are used to calculate total vehicle emissions in grams accounting for fleet characteristics and other inputs reflecting adopted transportation control measures. Emissions per trip are based on the network distance of each trip, average travel speed, and a multi-stage engine operating mode (cold start, hot start, and stabilized) function.

Article Outline

1. Introduction
1.1. Linking land use and vehicle emissions
2. Research design
2.1. Travel survey data
2.2. Estimating vehicle emissions
2.3. Land use data
2.4. Database construction
3. Analysis and findings
3.1. Household vehicle travel
3.2. Household vehicle emissions
3.2.1. Density and vehicle emissions
3.2.2. Connectivity, home tract employment density, and vehicle emissions
3.2.3. Work trip distance and vehicle emissions
3.3. Regression analysis
4. Summary and conclusion
Acknowledgements
References
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